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DVA

Darwin Video Assignment Instructions and Resources
Darwin's Historic Journey Route on the HMS Beagle


STEP ONE:
Your teacher will give you an organizer to fill out. Use the below information to help you fill it out. You do not need to write down everything! Choose information that is necessary to tell your story and complete the requirements.

Darwin Video Assignment Script Organizer:
Category 1: Charles Darwin
Charles Robert Darwin - February 12, 1809 - April 19, 1882 (Aged 73) Darwin is buried at Westminster Abbey near Sir Isaac Newton. It is a high honor to be buried at Westminster Abbey.
Darwin is best known for his theory of natural selection that explains how evolution works. In other words, natural selection is the mechanism in which species change over time. He is famous internationally and is often described as one of the most influential scientists of all time.
Darwin was the 5th of 6 children in his family. His father was a doctor and an investor. His family was wealthy.

Charles Darwin, 7 years old
As a child and in to his teenage years, Charles Darwin was immensely interested in natural sciences. He was a collector of animals and enjoyed exploration of the outdoors. His father intended him to be a doctor. Darwin graduated from the University of Cambridge and then went on to medical school. He found the medical lectures to be boring and was bothered by surgeries. Charles continued to pursue natural sciences and ignored his medical studies. This annoyed his father.
Charles Darwin was recommended to join the HMS Beagle on a survey mission to South America. The voyage was planned to last 2 years. His father objected but Charles' uncle convinced his dad to agree to the trip and pay for it.
On his return Darwin wrote about his experiences and became a famous author for his stories about the trip.
He married his first cousin, Emma. Together they had 10 children (3 of them died at an early age).
He kept secret notebooks containing his evidence and ideas for his new theory which he called natural selection. Darwin would not publish these findings for nearly 20 years.
He published his book, "On the Origin of Species" in 1859. It became a revolutionary breakthrough in science and a was best seller for decades. Darwin continued writing and publishing further works throughout the rest of his life.

Category 2: Darwin's Legendary Voyage
Read above to see how Charles Darwin ends up on this epic voyage around the world.
The HMS Beagle (HMS - Her Majesty's Ship) set sail from England on December 27, 1831. It was captained by Robert FitzRoy. Darwin was to serve as a companion and as a naturalist on the ship's survey mission that was expected to last just 2 years although it took nearly 5 years. Charles Darwin was 22 years old when voyage began.
The voyage had a mission to survey coastal areas of South America though it would eventually circumnavigate the globe. Unfortunately, Charles Darwin never adjusted to life at sea and was constantly sea sick. Because of this, Darwin tried to spend as much time on land as possible.
The Beagle spent their first two years on the east coast of South America. There, Darwin explored rainforests for the first time. The rainforests fascinated the young naturalist and increased his interest in species.
During his time exploring and collecting specimens along the South American coast, Darwin also looked for fossils. He uncovered several large fossils including megatherium (an extinct ground sloth the size of an elephant) and glyptodon (looks like a huge armadillo the size of a Smart car).
On one excursion, Charles Darwin hired guides to take him further inland. These guides were Argentinian gauchos (cowbows). Darwin enjoyed their lifestyle and learned much from them about the animals and plants that lived in their environment. Darwin was fascinated with two species of rhea (a large flightless bird similar to an ostrich) that seem to replace each other over a region of southern South America.
After surveying much of the east coast of South America, the HMS Beagle made it rounding the treacherous waters of the southern tip. Darwin explored the Andes mountains where he found fossils of seashells atop mountains 100 miles inland. He also experienced a major earthquake that leveled nearby villages. Darwin observed the land being upraised, caused by the earthquake. He understood that small changes in the earth over vast amounts of times caused the sea shells to be lifted high in the mountains.
After spending some time on the western coast of South America, the HMS Beagle headed to the Galapagos Islands. While the HMS Beagle only spent 5 weeks here, Darwin collected a number of specimens and made observations that would later become textbook examples of his theory. Species he observed here included finches, mockingbirds, and tortoises.
BIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE: When structures like beak shape are compared, this is biological evidence supporting evolution. Darwin compared beak shapes of finches. This gave Darwin evidence to show that they had a common ancestor. He observed the same pattern in the mockingbirds. The tortoises had similar structures suited to their environments as well.
Another set of biological evidence is vestigial organs. For example, in the movie we watched, Darwin observed 3 birds that had wing functions other than flight. The Steamer used its wings as paddles, the penguins as fins, and the rheas as sails. This is biological evidence supporting the use of wings for these species has changed over time.
Leaving the Galapagos Islands, the Beagle headed to the South Pacific. There, Darwin observed strange rings of coral with calm water on the inside. Today, these are called coral atolls. Darwin was intrigued and proposed a hypothesis how they were formed. After visiting the volcanic islands of Tahiti and Morea, Darwin believed these atolls were once volcanic islands.
The volcano had long went extinct and over an immense amount of time had sunken and eroded away. This proves again that Darwin had remarkable ability to see changes over vast amounts of time.
Leaving the South Pacific, the HMS Beagle also stopped in Australia where Darwin noted how unusual the marsupial kangaroos and platypus were.
Continuing on the way home, the Beagle stopped in South Africa where the captain and Darwin met up with John Herschel, a famous English scientist at that time. Darwin particularly enjoyed the visit and was influenced by Herschel's work and discussion. Some of Darwin's writings refer to Herschel's description of the origin of species as the "mystery of mysteries".
On the return home, Darwin spent much time examining his specimens and reflecting on his notes and observations. He is convinced that species change over time and upon his return will begin a "systematic inquiry" to try to figure out HOW it happens.
The HMS Beagle returns to England on October 2, 1836. At this time, Darwin is 27 years old.
Category 3: Darwin's Evidence
Darwin has a number of specimens and observations he used as evidence for his theory of natural selection.
BEFORE the HMS Beagle leaves England, Captain FitzRoy gives Darwin a copy of a book that has a major impact on his thinking, Principles of Geology by Charles Lyell. In the book, Lyell explains that landforms (such as mountains, valleys, and seashores) are the result of small gradual changes over vast amounts of time. Charles Darwin will adopt this idea in his observations and apply it to all life.
While in South America, Darwin uncovered fossil evidence to support his theory. One fossil Darwin found was glyptodon. The fossil showed a striking resemblance to the armadillo. Darwin hypothesized that glyptodon is an ancestral cousin to the armadillo.
Another fossil that Darwin uncovered was megatherium, a large extinct ground sloth. Darwin observed tree sloths in South America. He hypothesized that the extinct megatherium and the modern day tree sloth are related.
While in South America, Darwin observed several birds that used their wings for other uses than flight. The penguin uses its wings for swimming, the rhea uses them as sails, and the steamer as paddles. Darwin noted that flightless birds are evidence to show that species change over time. (Steamer is pictured below.)
In South America, Darwin spent some time with a group of gauchos (cowboys) in Argentina. While there he saw an ostrich-like bird called the Rhea. There are two species of the rhea that replace themselves over a region. There is a larger rhea that lives in the north. As you travel south, the larger rhea disappears and a smaller one survives, the Lesser Rhea (also known today as Darwin's Rhea). Darwin uses this as evidence to show that these two species had a common ancestor but have changed over time to adapt to the environment of their range.
While in Chile, Darwin and his ship mates experience a major earthquake. Darwin observes that it leveled nearby villages and more importantly notes that large portions of land had been upraised. This gives Darwin a first count experience to understand that small changes over time can bring about great transformations in the landscape.
Darwin travels through the Andes mountains bordering Chile and Argentina. He was 100 miles inland and high up in the mountains where, to his surprise, he finds fossils of seashells. Darwin hypothesizes that these rock layers must have been part of the sea in earth's past. Understanding that the earth changes over vast amounts of time allows Darwin to apply this same idea to life. Pictured below is one of the shelters Darwin stayed in during his explorations in the Andes mountains.
Some of Darwin's most popular evidence comes from the Galapagos Islands. The HMS Beagle spends only 5 weeks in the Galapagos but the evidence that Darwin finds there later becomes textbook examples for his theory of natural selection.
One of the most famous group of species used as evidence for Darwin's theory of natural selection are the Galapagos finches. Darwin theorizes the islands were colonized by a finch species from mainland South America. Over time, the finches evolved based on the food type available on each of the islands. Some beaks changed to be better adapted to eat insects while others to be better suited in collecting seeds.
Another group of species Darwin used as evidence were the Galapagos mockingbirds. Similar to the finches, Darwin discovered that there were separate species of mockingbirds inhabiting each of the islands. The mockingbirds also had noticeable differences in their beak shapes providing another strong piece of evidence that mockingbird populations on each of the islands evolved their beak shape to be better suited for the food type available.


Category 4: The Theory of Natural Selection
After Charles Darwin returned home to England he began to inquire HOW species change over time. One day Darwin was reading an essay by Thomas Malthus that sparked his greatest idea. Thomas Malthus explained that if human populations were to grow unchecked (no wars, no diseases), it would experience great growth until there was not enough food. Malthus argued that once food supplies would run out, humans would fight for survival. The strong and smart ones would figure out a way to survive while the weak would simply perish. Darwin recognized that all life works in a similar way and used this idea to develop his theory. Darwin called his theory natural selection, the survival of the fittest.
Our textbook definition for natural selection: The process through which members of a species that are best suited to their environment survive and reproduce at a higher rate than other members of a species.
Our textbook outlines 4 key principles of natural selection: Overproduction, Variation, Adaptation, and Selection.
Overproduction - In nature, organisms typically produce more offspring than the environment can support.
Variation - The offspring will be different genetically than their parents. In the population, there will be a large variety of traits.
Adaptation - Some traits can provide a benefit to survival or reproduction. Having a benefit enables an organism to have a better chance at survival and/or reproduction.
Selection - Individual organisms go through a struggle to survive and reproduce. There are a number of environmental factors (or limiting factors) such as food supply, disease, habitat, space, pollution, predators, weather, and more that make it difficult to survive. The individuals that do survive are able to pass down their genes to the next generation.

Species experience small changes in their population over time. After a great period of time, these changes may be so genetically different that they can be considered different species. The evolution of a new species from an existing species is called speciation.


STEP TWO:
Write out your video script. This is the most challenging part and usually takes most students 2 full periods to write. It is a great idea to read the below sample script so you have a good idea of what it should sound like. If you are working with a partner, BOTH of you should work on this together. If you are unable to stay focused with this partner, choose someone else or work on your own. You can hand-write this OR type it in a Google Doc. A Doc is a better choice since you will need to read your script aloud during your recordings. A typed script is usually easier to read.

Your video needs to be at least 5 minutes long but no longer than 10 minutes.

Sample Script

IMPORTANT: While you may use the information below, any form of plagiarism (direct copying of all or part) will result in a project score of ZERO for BOTH you and your partner.

Intro – Create an exciting video introduction.

Welcome to The Greatest Scientific Breakthroughs with Mr. G, Correia Middle School’s leading science guru. Today on The Greatest Scientific Breakthroughs, we travel back to the 1800s to learn how a young naturalist, Charles Darwin, traveled around the world to assemble a number of observations and evidence to formulate his theory of natural selection which is the mechanism for evolution, or how species change over time.

Category 1 - Who was he?  What did he do? What book did he write? Why was he famous? Use terms evolution, natural selection

Charles Darwin was a British naturalist who was the first person to develop a reasonable explanation for evolution, that is, how species change over time.  Darwin called his great idea, natural selection.

At a young age, Darwin had the opportunity to sail around the world.  The long journey allowed him to collect evidence and explore scientific ideas about the natural world.  After this voyage, Darwin spent nearly 20 years pursuing an answer to what he referred to as, “the mystery of mysteries.”  In other words, Darwin was investigating what causes new species to be formed.  Understanding that his idea would be controversial, Darwin was careful to outline his theory in detail with clear evidence.  In 1859, Charles Darwin finally published his book, The Origin of Species, and revealed his greatest idea to the scientific world. (This is about 50 seconds of recorded voice.)

Category 2 – When was the voyage? Where did it go? What was the purpose? Why was this trip important? Use terms biological evidence

Charles Darwin boarded a navy ship, the HMS Beagle, in December of 1831.  The Beagle’s mission was to survey and chart the coastlines of South America.  It was expected to be a two year journey but lasted nearly 5 years. 

Unfortunately for Darwin, he experienced intense sea sickness during the journey.  As a result, he spent as much time as possible on land.  Darwin was able to explore large portions of continental South America as well as other stops across the world including the Galapagos Islands, islands and atolls of the South Pacific, New Zealand, Australia, and Africa.

Over the nearly five years of the Beagle’s voyage, Charles Darwin gained a global perspective of nature.  He took copious notes and collected numerous specimens including plants, animals, and fossils.  These notes and specimens later became key fossil and biological evidence to support his theory of natural selection.  During the trip, his scientific curiosity allowed him to ask and ponder important questions about the formation of landforms and the origins of species.  (This is about 60 seconds of recorded voice.)

Category 3 – Describe several pieces of Darwin’s evidence. Use terms fossil evidence, genetic variation, vestigial organs, limiting factors, ancestor

As the HMS Beagle traveled home, Darwin studied his collection of notes and specimens.  These accounts convinced him that species change over time.  One fossil he collected on the east coast of South America was glyptodon.  Darwin identified the fossil as a large form of an extinct armadillo.  He theorized that glyptodon was the ancestor to the modern day armadillo.  This supported his idea that species change over time.

Another piece of fossil evidence Darwin discovered was megatherium.  He was fascinated that this large fossil resembled the tree dwelling sloth he observed in the same region the fossil was discovered. Darwin, again, pondered the idea that the extinct megatherium evolved into the modern day sloth over a large amount of time.

Classic examples of Darwin’s evidence are the finches and mockingbirds he collected in the Galapagos Islands. Darwin observed that each of the finches and mockingbirds had different shaped beaks on the different islands they inhabited.  Both of these species had beak shapes that were suited to the specific food types available on their islands.  These examples became evidence to show that a trait such as beak shape gave an advantage to survival in an environment with a limiting factor of food availability. 

When Darwin was in the southern region of South America, he was able to observe two types of Rhea, an ostrich-like flightless bird.  Darwin recognized that the ability to fly was vestigial.  In other words, the rhea’s ancestors had the ability to fly but the wing structure has lost this function over time.  Darwin observed other vestigial organs and structures in other species as well.  Another example was the vestigial leg structures in whale fossils.

Last, Darwin began to understand how evolution of species takes place as he observed the genetic variation of organisms.  When members of a species reproduce, Darwin observed that the offspring are not exact copies of their parents.  Offspring can inherit slight changes to their genetic makeup causing mutations that can either support or hinder their ability to survive and reproduce.  Later, Darwin identified that this is part of the mechanism that allows species to change over time. (This is about 130 seconds of recorded voice.)

Category 4 – Describe the theory of natural selection.  Describe Darwin’s ideas of “survival of the fittest”. Use terms adaptation, environmental factors, speciation, natural selection, theory, limiting factor, population.

From his observations and insight, Charles Darwin developed his theory of natural selection.  This theory has four key principles. The first principle, Overproduction, explains that organisms tend to produce more offspring than the environment can support.

Second, Genetic Variation, states that offspring produced through sexual reproduction do not receive the same exact genes as their parents.  This leads to a variety of changes in each generation.

Third, Adaptation, gives some members of a population a survival and reproduction advantage over others of the same species.  The variations of offspring can have traits that either increase or decrease chances of survival.

Last, Selection, is all about survival and reproduction of an organism.  Environmental factors are conditions that affect survival.  Factors such as food supply, predators, climate, and habitat create a struggle for an organism to survive.  Darwin explained that the members of a population with the best traits have a better chance at survival and reproduction than other members of the same species.  Darwin called this, “survival of the fittest.” Members of a population that did not possess traits that helped them survive were less likely to survive and reproduce.  The capacity to overcome limiting factors and being able to reproduce allows organisms to pass beneficial traits to the next generation.  Over time and numerous generations later, a population can experience so many changes that it becomes a new species.  This process is called speciation and is the result of natural selection. (This is about 90 seconds of recorded voice.)

Sign-off – Create an exciting conclusion and sign-off.

Darwin’s mechanism for evolution establishes a unifying theory for all life and explains the diversity of organisms on Earth. Until next time on The Greatest Scientific Breakthroughs, I’m Mr. G and I want to thank you for watching.

If this outline became a script, it would create a video that is 6-7 minutes in length.

STEP THREE:
Create a Google Presentation that you will use for your presentation. If you are working with a partner, you should share the work creating the presentation. As a general guideline, create a total of 12 slides (3 slides per category). Important, make sure the information and the pictures match your script! Use the pictures above in your presentation (you should know how to do this). These are the slides that you will show while you and your partner are reading your script.

SAMPLE Slides for your Screencast

DVA Presentation Example

STEP FOUR:
Install the Screencastify app on your Chrome browser. Follow these directions very carefully. Go to the Launcher in the lower left-hand corner:
Then select Web Store. If you do not see it, click on All Apps to find Web Store:
After, search for Screencastify:
Next, select ADD TO CHROME:
Then, select Add extension:
After it downloads, you are done. Success! The app's icon will now show up in your browser every time you use that computer:
After you see the icon, go ahead and test it out. Select storing your recordings on Google Drive (see below). 
You do not need to activate Tab Recording. You can set this up later if you want to use it but it is not needed for this project. Watch the Screencastify video to see how it works. Go ahead and test out recordings with your webcam and by screencasting. Testing out the features before you start recording your project videos. It is always a great idea to familiarize yourself with any new app or software you will be using. 
IMPORTANT: To record using the webcam, use these settings:
IMPORTANT: To record your desktop (for your screencast), use these settings:
Then it will ask you this and be sure "Your Entire Screen" is selected then click share. 
Try out screencasting, it is recording your entire screen AND your voice. It is easy to stop the recording, simply go back to the Screencastify icon and select Stop Recording.

STEP FOUR:
Time to start recording. If you are working with a partner, only one of you will record the videos on his/her Chromebook.  It is really important that this partner is very reliable and rarely misses school.
You (and your partner) will record three video segments: 1. Webcam introduction 2. Screencast 3. Webcam Sign-off. Let's face it, recording yourself is a bit awkward at first. It is natural to be embarrassed. You will likely have to re-record several times.
If you re-record dozens and dozens of videos, you can easily run out of class time. Try not to worry about making little mistakes when speaking. Besides, only your teacher and some other students will see your video so perfection is not necessary!
IMPORTANT: When recording, you must speak very clearly. If your teacher can not hear you, he/she will not be able to accurately grade you.
Delete your bad recordings right away. This way, the bad recordings will not be uploaded to your Drive.
Recordings can take a few minutes to upload to your Drive so don't sign-out of your computer immediately after making a recording. Once the videos are on your Drive, it would be a good idea to rename them so they are easier to find later.
If you want to see my recordings before editing, click to see them here 1. Introduction 2. Screencast 3. Sign-off

STEP FIVE:
You now should have 3 good recordings on your Drive: 1. Webcam Introduction 2. Screencast 3. Webcam Sign-off.
Time to send your files to YouTube. If you are working with a partner, only one of you needs to do this. Use the same partner that recorded the videos. It is really important that this partner is very reliable and rarely misses school. Go to YouTube, sign in (using your school account), and create your channel.
If you already have a YouTube Channel, great! If not, follow these directions. 
After you are logged in to YouTube, select My channel on the left side menu:
Then simply select CREATE CHANNEL:
That's it. Now you are able to upload your videos to YouTube. There are two places on the page to upload. The most obvious way is the up arrow icon in the top-right part of the page. 
Select your files for upload. Set to Private.
Find your 3 videos that you will edit and assemble. They should be located in your Google Drive. Notice below that I renamed my files in my Drive so that I can easily find them. You can select all 3 files to upload to YouTube at the same time.
Since these videos have not been edited, just keep them Private. Select Private on the right side from the Privacy menu and then select Done with all.
YouTube will need some time to move your files from Drive and to process them. When I did this, YouTube took just over an hour to process all three of my videos. If you want to checkup on the status, go to your channel then select Video Manager (located next to your profile picture.

STEP SIX:
Next is to do any editing and assemble the videos together on YouTube. Go to YouTube and make sure you are logged in. After, go to My Channel on the left side menu. Then select Video Manager, located near your profile picture:
In the Video Manager, you should see your 3 video clips if YouTube processed them. Yours should look similar to this:
 On the left side menu, now select CREATE:
Then select Video Editor on the left side.
You can also go directly there using this link: https://www.youtube.com/editor

NOW IS A GOOD TIME TO USE HEADPHONES!

Be patient with this part, it can be tricky for a beginner. Plan on spending time to make this work correctly.

Here's what the Video Editor looks like. Notice that I changed the name of my project at the top. IMPORTANT: change the name of your project in this format: Darwin Video Assignment, your name, your partner's name, your science period.
Next, drag your Introduction video to the spot you see here:
This is a good time to trim your video segment if you need to. You can trim off unwanted parts in the beginning and end of the video clip. Use the blue sliders to trim. Drag the blue sliders. The first time you move the blue sliders will jump by large amounts of time, the second time you move the blue sliders will give you finer control. This takes practice (and headphones).
Then, drag the Screencast video and finally the Sign-off video. If you can't see how to do that, click the X on the right side. Then you will be able to drag in your other videos in the correct sequence. Each time you drag in a new clip, it is a good idea to trim.

Did you totally mess up the sequence or trimming? It can be fixed or you could start again. To start again, you can easily create a new project and delete the old one. Instead, you could delete the segments and drag them in again. Patience is needed. If you need help, ask neighbors who are good at this!

Once the clips are correctly assembled and trimmed, you can select CREATE VIDEO on the right. Once you select that button, YouTube will need several minutes to process the new video.

Ask your teacher about doing any advanced editing (transitions or other effects) or adding a music track. If you add a music track, BE SURE that the volume is low and in the background.

STEP SEVEN:
You are very close to being done and turning in your video. Go back to Video Manager (My Channel -> Video Manager [located near the profile picture]). Click on either Edit or the Blue Lock.
Just under the preview area, click on Share:
LAST, share the video with your teacher using his/her email address. Be sure to spell it correctly and make sure the box is checked to Notify via email. It is OPTIONAL to check the box to allow other users in our school district to view your video.

IMPORTANT! After you click OK, you MUST finish by selecting the BLUE SHARE button in the bottom right corner.

Wow. Great job! Give yourself a pat on the back!
End of DVA Instructions

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